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Earmuffs [WORK]

Thermal earmuffs are worn for protection from the cold. Because the ears extend from the sides of the head to gather sound waves, they have a high skin surface-area-to-volume ratio, and very little muscle tissue, causing them to be one of the first body parts to become uncomfortably cold as temperatures drop. Some people experience this discomfort even if most of the body is comfortably warm, especially during strenuous activity. Wind can often cause the ears to be much colder than the rest of the head. When the ears are uncomfortably cold and the rest of the body is much warmer, using a winter hat or the hood of a jacket to cover the ears may cause the head or body to be uncomfortably hot, possibly inducing perspiration of the head, a dangerous condition in cold weather. Earmuffs can be used to warm the ears only, avoiding overheating other parts of the body or trapping exhaust heat from strenuous movement.


There are two main types of thermal earmuffs. One type has a structure similar to large headphones, with a band going over the top of the head. Another type has two round earpieces made from a material that can produce heat, connected to a thick headband going around and behind the head. Some headbands are thick and wide enough to warm the ears, and are referred to "earmuffs" when used this way.

Acoustic earmuffs are believed to have originated during World War II.[3] Pilots of military aircraft wore leather flaps over their ears, supposedly to protect against noise-induced hearing loss due to engine noise.[3] Prototype versions of earmuffs, composed of a headband and cuffs to fit over the outer ear, were soon after developed. These early versions were not practical due to the discomfort caused by the headbands being tightly fixed against the head.[3] In 1954, an earmuff with a more comfortable cushion design was developed.[3]

When persons are exposed to excessively loud environments (85 dB or more), hearing protection devices are recommended to prevent noise-induced hearing loss.[7][8] Hearing protection should be worn whenever power tools, loud yard equipment, or firearms are used. Any noise greater than 140 dB can cause permanent hearing loss. Firearms range from a noise level of 140 dB to 175 dB depending on the firearm type. It is recommended to use dual hearing protection (earmuffs and earplugs together) when using firearms.[9] Exposure to loud noises damages the hair cells in the inner ear that are essential for sending neural impulses to the brain in order to perceive sounds. Loss of these hair cells leads to hearing loss that may cause speech and sounds to be muffled or distorted. Tinnitus is often associated with hearing loss; there is no cure for tinnitus.[10] In the workplace, OSHA requires the use of hearing protection devices whenever a person is exposed to an average noise intensity of 90 dBA or greater over an 8-hour shift. The louder the environment, the less time that a person may spend there without the risk of incurring hearing loss. NIOSH has also developed standards for hearing protection.[11] Compared to OSHA, the NIOSH standards are more conservative in their estimates for safe noise exposure times. Tabulated below are the NIOSH standards for the maximum daily exposure times at various noise levels.[12]

A typical earmuff attenuates (decreases) the level of noise by approximately 23 dB when tested under carefully controlled laboratory conditions.[15] The EPA requires that earmuff manufacturers test each device's performance and indicate their specific noise-reduction capabilities on the product labeling.[16] This single number is called the Noise Reduction Rating, or NRR. The attenuation is higher when measured in laboratory testing than worn in the field, or in real world settings. However, earmuffs had the least variability compared to earplugs. Discrepancies between the field and lab results could be due to improper training of how to wear the device.[17] Experiments have indicated that the actual attenuation achieved by ordinary users of earmuffs is only 33% to 74% of the labeled NRR.[17] Improper fit, device deterioration, and a poor seal with the head all contribute to reduced device performance. Despite these drawbacks, research has shown that the real-world performance of earmuffs is in closer agreement to manufacturers' labels than it is for earplugs.[17] This suggests that earmuffs are more intuitive for users to wear correctly and in some cases may be a more appropriate choice of hearing protection.

When deciding between earmuffs and earplugs, it is also important to consider the noise reduction levels achieved at different sound frequencies. In general, earmuffs provide less attenuation for low-frequency (

There are two different types of earmuffs used to protect the user from loud sounds based on the acoustical properties and materials used to create them: passively attenuating and actively attenuating earmuffs.

Active earmuffs have an electronic component and microphones that allow the user to control their access to communication while attenuating background noise. When in loud, hazardous settings, the wearer may still be required to listen to outside sources, such as machinery work, their supervisor's commands, or talk to their colleagues. While the material and design of the muff allows for a reasonable attenuation (roughly 22 dBNRR), the user has the option to allow some sounds in that are necessary for their job. These earmuffs incorporate a volume control to increase and decrease the attenuation.

Active noise reduction earmuffs incorporate electronic noise cancellation or active noise cancellation to attenuate (roughly 26 dB NRR[20]) low frequency noise.[21] A microphone, circuit, and speaker inside the muff are used to actively cancel out noise. As a signal enters the microphone, the electronics within the earmuff cast a signal back that is 180 out of phase with the signal, thus "cancelling" this signal.[22] This opposing signal reduces the amplitude of the waveform and reduces the signal. These earmuffs are designed to protect against a continuous signal, particularly low frequency sounds, such as diesel locomotives, heavy tractors, or airfields.[21]

Most earmuffs can be expected to provide adequate attenuation for noise levels up to 103 dBC.[15] At levels beyond this intensity, it becomes necessary for users to wear earplugs with earmuffs on top in order to achieve adequate protection from hearing damage. The simultaneous use of two forms of hearing protections is known as dual hearing protection. The MSHA regulations stipulate that workers must use dual hearing protection when average 8-hour exposures are 105 dBA or greater.[16] The US Department of Defense recommends use of dual protection when exposed to noise ranging from 108-118 dBA.[23] Dual protection is also recommended when shooting firearms because of the extremely high-level impulses (140 dB and greater) produced.[24]

A proper fit of the earmuffs on the head is essential to providing adequate hearing protection.[26] Individuals will require earmuffs of differing sizes.[27] This is especially important to remember when considering earmuffs for children. Muffs should make a good seal against the head and should fully cover the outer ear without pushing against the ears. Additionally, the headband should be the correct length to hold the cushions over the ears.[27] Otherwise, sound can leak under the muffs and will reach the users' ears. Some wearers may use their earmuffs when hair is covering their ears or while wearing glasses. Prior to placement on the head, hair should be carefully pulled back and away from the cushions. Placing earmuffs over obstructing hair or safety glasses with thick frames may reduce the earmuff attenuation by 5-10 dB.[28] Even eyeglasses with thinner frames can reduce the effectiveness of hearing protection by 3-7 dB.[27]

One simple method for checking earmuff fit is to lift one or both muffs away from the head while in a noisy environment. If the noise is considerably louder with the adjustment, then the earmuffs are providing at least some degree of noise reduction.[27]

There are different earmuff style options for HPD users. Styles include: cap-mounts for hard hats, neckbands for use with welding helmets and faceshields, folding earmuffs are meant to be portable and easy to store, and multi-position earmuffs worn in varies positions are useful for versatility to wear both earmuffs and other safety ware, such as glasses or masks.[20]

Exposure to high level noise (190 dB SPL) may cause the earmuff to vibrate off the external ear causing a leak which would allow hazardous exposure to dangerous levels of noise.[30] In loud enough environments, the ear canal can vibrate, causing the air trapped inside the earcup to vibrate as well. This typically only occurs with low frequency noise, but can reduce the effectiveness of the hearing protection device.[29] Technology in earmuffs is developing and shows promise in reducing the effects of airflow vibrations in the ear muffs.[20]

During the amount of time an individual wears earmuffs, the device can be jostled and displaced from the proper position that allows for the highest attenuation. This can be common in the workplace, as many individuals are in motion during the time they are wearing the hearing protection device. Moving the jaw while chewing or talking and perspiration are examples of ways in which readjustment can occur, causing the seal to be broken between the earcup and skin and allowing sound to leak in.[31]

It is also important to consider the age and physical condition of earmuffs. Earmuffs should be inspected regularly for cracks and changes in shape or firmness. Headbands may also lose their tension or ability to properly adjust to the head, which could lead to a decrease in device effectiveness.[31] Physical changes could create an opening to the ear, allowing sound through and reducing attenuation. According to some manufacturers, ear cushions showed be replaced every 6-8 months if used regularly. If earmuffs are used very frequently then the cushion should be replaced every 3-4 months.[32]


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